Author Topic: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)  (Read 1527 times)

Offline Mads Barnkob

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Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« on: July 23, 2017, 11:17:06 PM »
To start with, this introduction is also what I got on my website: http://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/general-electronics/hacking-ikea-2kw-induction-hob/

...but there are still unanswered questions about the microcontroller in question and possible ideas on how to hack this into a IH/Tesla coil are also welcome :) If you can locate a datasheet on any of the components, please come forward!

Introduction
IKEA had their single stand alone induction stove on sale for 40 Euro and that was cheap enough to buy it only to take it apart and possibly destroy it during experiments.

Perhabs this could be a quick and cheap jump into a 2 kW induction heater for DIY purposes.

Cheap and simple circuits like these, that run from 230 VAC mains often use a sketchy power supply for the logic circuit, the ground is often floating and could be several hundred Volt away from a true ground. This makes it risk filled to interface with and measure on without a differential probe.

I expect to explode some part of this induction stove, more than once.

Specifications:
Induction zone size:   185 mm diameter
Maximum input current:   8.5 Ampere
Maximum total effect:   2000 Watt
Voltage:   220 - 240 Volt
Width:   30 cm
Depth:   38.5 cm
Height:   5.4 cm
Weight:   3.00 kg


What is in the box and a look at the electronics? (Part 1 of 5)


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The box is plain, simple and white with a black stencil of the induction stove on it. The IKEA name for the product is TILLREDA and means "to prepare a meal".

The control of the induction stove is straight forward. There is a children lock, on/off, pause and intensity buttons. The stove also has temperature protection right in the centre of the work coil.

Overall impression of the inside is that it is a very cheap and simple design with a microcontroller, logic power supply and a single switch inverter topology using a IGBT.

The brand name on boards and components are HIGHWAY, which is from the Chinese company Guangdong Highway Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. http://highway-global.com/

In the following table is the manufacturers own "datasheet" for the MCU found in the IKEA induction hob. Click the model number for their own page, I also corrected the spelling errors and I think it is worth mentioning that they advertise their product specifically as Imported chip with stable performance.



Model: HIGHWAY09A http://highway-global.com/product/html/?116.html
1. 16DIP package, OTP type chip
2. 16 pins with single-chip touch. Apply for all induction cookers.
3. Imported chip with stable performance
4. Program Memory:4K x16
5. Data Memory:160 x 8
6. Up to 4channels 12-bit resolution A/D converter
7. Program can not be erased and not be re-written

A few searches quickly gave me the idea that Holtek could be the true manufacturer of the microcontroller, as these are used extensively in products from China and the above specifications also pointed me in that direction.

I have spent hours browsing through the product catalogues of Holtek Semiconductor Inc. and the closest I ever got to find a microcontroller with all the above specifications was the HT46R51A, but the pinout does not match 100%, but very close, so far my conclusion on this IC is that its a older product or simply a custom pinout IC made specifically for Highway.

The IGBT is also of HIGHWAY brand and has some of the same funny features, no datasheets or curves are needed if the transistor can take a harder beating with a hammer than Fairchild or Siemens...



Model: HIGHWAY 20A1350V1 IGBT http://highway-global.com/product/html/?113.html
1. Its temperature rise is the same as Siemens IGBT's.
2. Withstand voltage 1350V.
3. 1 pcs IGBT is enough for 2500w machine.
4. Impact resistance is stronger than Fairchild 25A and 20A Siemens
5. The price is the most competitive.

It is also possible to get a 2500 Watt version at almost the same price from Alibaba: https://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/2014-2500W-small-size-mini-induction_1863654875.html

Measurements of inverter voltage, primary current and gate drive (Part 2 of 5)

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Test setup is compromised of the following 3 instruments connected to a Rigol DS1054Z oscilloscope.
Inverter output voltage, measured across the work coil, is done with a 1300V Tektronix P5200 differential probe. 250V/div on the oscilloscope.
LC circuit current is measured between the work coil and resonant capacitor with a Pearson electronics model 110 current monitor. 20A/div.
Gate drive waveform is measured between Gate and Emitter with a two-channel Tektronix A6909 isolator. 10V/div.



Quasi-resonant inverter topology
The output power of the inverter can be controlled by a Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM) with fixed off-time and variable on-time. The waveform of the resonant voltage changes whenever DC-LINK becomes LOW or there is any change in load impedance. The amplitude of DC-LINK (VDC) ranges from zero to maximum as the capacitor has a small capacity.

When observing the waveforms of the current and voltage in the resonant circuit, it can at first be very confusing as the measured amplitude seems to follow the trigger level, so it is actually easy to lock on to a stable signal, but that does not tell the whole story. With the horizontal time base at 10 us/div where the single switching can be observed, it is impossible to discover what the waveform actually looks like at 2 ms/div horizontal time base, here it can be seen that all power is drawn within the full-wave rectified mains 100 Hz envelope.



Equivalent of circuit


Single quasi-resonant cycle analysis
Mode I: t0-t1
The IGBT is turned off at t0. VCE is gradually increased by the capacitor (Cr) to become DC-LINK (VDC) at t1. Even when the IGBT is turned off at t0, the current keeps increasing to reach its peak at t1, when VCE becomes equal to VDC. At this point, the energy stored in the inductor begins to be transferred to the capacitor.



Mode II: t1-t4
As VCE gets higher than VDC after t1, the current is decreased and reaches zero at t2, while the resonant voltage reaches its maximum level. This is also the point where the transfer of the energy, stored in the inductor, to the capacitor is completed. The peak level of the resonant voltage has a direct relationship with the on-time of the IGBT (Mode IV: t5-t6). After t2, the capacitor starts discharging the energy to the inductor, which causes the resonant voltage to decrease and reach its minimum level at t3, i.e. VCE=VDC. Passing t3, the resonant current increases as VCE<VDC and the discharge is completed at t4.



Mode III: t4-t5
At t4, VCE becomes zero and the anti-parallel diode, D1, turns on naturally. Since the resonant current is flowing through D1, the voltage drop of the IGBT remains zero. Therefore, Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) turn-on can be achieved by turning on the IGBT in this mode.



Mode IV: t5-t6
At t5, the current direction changes and flows through the inductor. Therefore the inductor starts to store the energy. At t6, the IGBT is turned off, returning to Mode I.



Pulse Frequency Modulation
Divided by the red line we have power mode 5 at the bottom and power mode 9 at the top.
It can be observed that the off-time of the purple gate drive signal is identical in both power modes, so this pulse frequency modulator operates with fixed off time.
In quasi-resonant switching, the device does not have a fixed switching frequency, which is also clear from looking at the two waveforms, due to the longer on-time at high power, the resonant frequency is lower. The microcontroller waits for one of the negative half-cycles in the collector voltage and then switches the IGBT on.

The time between IGBT turn-off and the first negative half-cycle is fixed by the resonant frequency. The time between IGBT turn-on and turn-off is set by the microcontroller.
The narrow frequency span from 22 to 25 kHz does not pose any significant problems in designing the magnetic components, but it is enough to get the resonant current to rise up the maximum power level that can be drawn from a regular mains outlet.




Hacking the control loops of the MCU (Part 3 of 5)


Check back later for updates.


Using it as a induction heater (Part 5 of 5)


Check back later for updates.


Using it as a Tesla coil (Part 5 of 5)

Check back later for updates.
« Last Edit: August 13, 2017, 01:46:51 PM by Mads Barnkob »
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Offline station240

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #1 on: July 24, 2017, 07:04:03 AM »
I wonder how poor the power factor is ?
Is the small bus capacitor so it's recharged every mains cycle.

Offline Mads Barnkob

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #2 on: July 24, 2017, 09:09:50 AM »
I wonder how poor the power factor is ?
Is the small bus capacitor so it's recharged every mains cycle.

I will see if I can measure the power factor for part 2.

With only 10uF filtering and 8uF bus capacitance, I suspect it to almost be running at full-wave rectified mains without much smoothing when its at full power.
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Offline titanbravo

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #3 on: July 25, 2017, 04:00:31 AM »
Hi Mads, recently i have watched your youtube video and i commented some of the info that i have found in internet about this circuit, and i want to post here so that links can help to everyone (and don't disapears in youtube comments)

An Application Note from Fairchild
https://www.fairchildsemi.com/application-notes/AN/AN-9012.pdf

And a disassembly
http://openschemes.com/2010/11/11/1800w-induction-cooktop-teardown/

And the circuit is analyzed
http://openschemes.com/2010/12/09/circuit-analysis-of-the-1-8kw-induction-hotplate/

Keep going! :) :)

Offline Mads Barnkob

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #4 on: July 27, 2017, 12:09:22 AM »
Thank you very much for the links, I was not expecting to be the first to take one of these cheap induction stoves apart and abuse it, but I really did not make much research on it either, just got carried away when I saw the price on it in the store :)

The application note has a good and simple introduction to the quasi-resonant drive, that is nice.

The circuit analysis on openschemes is properly not too far from how they implemented the same voltage tracking in the microcontroller on the IKEA one, I hope I can take a guess on these by scoping the inputs in regard to each other.
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Offline Mads Barnkob

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #5 on: August 13, 2017, 01:47:51 PM »
Main post updated with part 2!
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Offline futurist

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #6 on: August 14, 2017, 05:13:46 PM »
Great explanation Mads, thanks!
Looking forward to see updates

Offline conorfitzpatrick2

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #7 on: August 31, 2017, 12:47:31 PM »
Hi Mads. I left a comment on your YT video (part 2 of hacking the IKEA stove). After hearing your advice about the second fuse I have checked and it is in fact blown so I have been researching a replacement on RS components and others. I see that it is a 15A cartridge fuse in axial lead form. Do you have any idea what 'speed' fuse I should get: fast acting (F) or slow acting (T). I read that F is the most common speed used but T allows for a short, harmless surge of current that I imagine the coil causes? Any advice on this issue would be really appreciated! Thanks very much for your help!
« Last Edit: August 31, 2017, 01:22:32 PM by conorfitzpatrick2 »

Offline Mads Barnkob

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #8 on: August 31, 2017, 02:58:43 PM »
Hi Mads. I left a comment on your YT video (part 2 of hacking the IKEA stove). After hearing your advice about the second fuse I have checked and it is in fact blown so I have been researching a replacement on RS components and others. I see that it is a 15A cartridge fuse in axial lead form. Do you have any idea what 'speed' fuse I should get: fast acting (F) or slow acting (T). I read that F is the most common speed used but T allows for a short, harmless surge of current that I imagine the coil causes? Any advice on this issue would be really appreciated! Thanks very much for your help!

Welcome to the forum Conor

The fuse is packed in shrinking plastic in my unit, but I can cut it up to take a look, but you should be able to see the same on your own fuse, the ratings and markings are always written on the sides of the end caps of the fuse, can you not see a F or T there?

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Offline conorfitzpatrick2

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #9 on: August 31, 2017, 03:20:12 PM »
Hello yes mine was wrapped in heat shrink too. When I removed the plastic I could see that it was blown so I noted down what was written on the sides like you say: 5G 15A US  So nothing about fuse speed on there. Is the photo of your fuse? If so I can use the same fuse as the two products are almost identical. Thanks again for your help!

Offline Mads Barnkob

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #10 on: August 31, 2017, 06:04:07 PM »
Hello yes mine was wrapped in heat shrink too. When I removed the plastic I could see that it was blown so I noted down what was written on the sides like you say: 5G 15A US  So nothing about fuse speed on there. Is the photo of your fuse? If so I can use the same fuse as the two products are almost identical. Thanks again for your help!

That was just a random image showing the marking, did you check both end caps?

For a 2000 Watt product, supplied from 230 VAC, that corresponds to 8.7 A, so if it is a 15 A fuse sitting there, I would assume its Fast acting, since its already grossly overrated current wise.
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Offline conorfitzpatrick2

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #11 on: August 31, 2017, 09:43:36 PM »
That sounds right! I'm afraid I have since lost the bits of the fuse so will have to try the F fuses - I have ordered a pack of 10 from RS components. Thanks again. Will update when arrived and tested.

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #12 on: September 01, 2017, 09:15:23 PM »
Hello! I just soldered the replacement fuse onto the PCB and it turns on! This was without the coil wire connected... I then connected the coil and turned on the induction heater - so far so good - I then turn on the 'touch' button to activate the coil and it trips the circuit breaker in my workshop! The fuse on the PCB doesn't blow and neither does the fuse in the plug. I measured the voltage across the coil attachment points and read +750V. The heater has functioned perfectly in the workshop before so I know it SHOULD be fine. I have wrapped the coil in such a way that none of the wire is touching itself so the coil is not 'shorting'. The soldering on the back of the PCB looks completely normal. Do you have any idea what might be causing this surge and trip? Thanks, Conor.
« Last Edit: September 01, 2017, 09:30:30 PM by conorfitzpatrick2 »

Offline Mads Barnkob

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #13 on: September 01, 2017, 10:10:35 PM »
Hello! I just soldered the replacement fuse onto the PCB and it turns on! This was without the coil wire connected... I then connected the coil and turned on the induction heater - so far so good - I then turn on the 'touch' button to activate the coil and it trips the circuit breaker in my workshop! The fuse on the PCB doesn't blow and neither does the fuse in the plug. I measured the voltage across the coil attachment points and read +750V. The heater has functioned perfectly in the workshop before so I know it SHOULD be fine. I have wrapped the coil in such a way that none of the wire is touching itself so the coil is not 'shorting'. The soldering on the back of the PCB looks completely normal. Do you have any idea what might be causing this surge and trip? Thanks, Conor.

Desolder the IGBT and measure it with a multimeter, it is most likely dead short and destroyed. That happened to me once already, I just put another IGBT with similar ratings inthere, from my bin of old IGBTs :)

Be sure to use a IGBT with at least 1200V rating and not something with a way higher gate charge, the gate drive circuit of this is not very powerful.
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Offline conorfitzpatrick2

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #14 on: September 01, 2017, 10:23:25 PM »
Thank you so much! I hadn't even thought of removing the heat sink yet. I am away for a week but will try this and update again. Thanks again. Conor.

Offline conorfitzpatrick2

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #15 on: September 15, 2017, 01:11:34 AM »
Hello again! I looked at the IGBT and it was in fact shorted. I ordered some replacement IGBTs, desoldered the old one and soldered in a new one. Plugged it in and switched it on, pressed the 'ON' button and placed a metal rod into the coil. The circuit turned on the coil and started heating the rod!! After 10 seconds of heating the rod the circuit shorted and the power went out.... gutted! I had the heat sink properly attached with thermal paste and the fan running. All I can think is that the IGBT is under spec in a critical area/ aspect but I can't figure out which it is. I have attached the two data sheets. On the left is the original IGBTs sheet and on the right is the sheet of the IGBT I got sent from RS components. (I ordered the exact same IGBT but received this one!) Can you spot anything obviously wrong with the replacement? Thanks. Conor.

Offline Mads Barnkob

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #16 on: November 24, 2017, 10:57:28 PM »
I was sent this schematic that have been circulating on Chinese forums, this should be the reverse engineered circuit of the HIGHWAY09A circuits.

The resolution is not good, but it is what is available.

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Offline petespaco

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #17 on: November 25, 2017, 12:20:30 AM »
Hello Mads.
    I just saw your latest article on hacking this Induction Stove and I will read it later.
Right now, I wonder if you'd consider reviewing your Rigol DS 1504 'scope for us (me).
  My ancient Tektronix 422 is starting to fail and I guess I'm going to have to replace it one of these days.

I have spent a fair amount of time looking at specs for scopes within my price range (under $500 USD) and it is hard to tell if one scope or one set of features is better than others. 
Mind you, I bought about 50 of those Tek 422's in the late 60's, and they were a great field service tool for our needs back then.  But these days, I see all the digital scopes for sale, with lots of storage, etc..  I just can't separate all those features!!!

Anyway, how do you like it?
Would you buy it again?
What issues does it have, if any?

Pete Stanaitis
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Offline Mads Barnkob

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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #18 on: December 07, 2017, 10:03:07 PM »
I bought some brake line copper tubing, thinking that it was useful for rebuilding this to a induction heater, but it just showed me that it would have been better to do the math first and then shop later :)

Here is the calculations for the original spiral coil in the unit


Here is the calculations for the 5 mm diameter copper tubing, the roll of it is 7.5 meter long


So without changing the resonant capacitor, because I do not want to lower the impedance by having a higher capacitance, I still end up at around twice the frequency and 2/3 of the impedance.

I have not yet made a coil and done tests, because I fear this is too far from its original working point to even work.

What do you guys think? Should I give it a try considering there the topology provides enough time for switching or look around for thinner copper tubing?

Pete, regarding the oscilloscopes, make a new thread where you tell some more about what you have looked at and we can discuss that separately.
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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #19 on: December 08, 2017, 04:22:31 PM »
Quote
What do you guys think? Should I give it a try considering there the topology provides enough time for switching or look around for thinner copper tubing?

The only experience I have is with the "1000 Watt ZVS" Royer oscillator type of induction heater.
The resonant frequency  always drops when I insert a workpiece.  I wonder if the same is true for this "induction stove", even though it appears to be of a pll design.

1. What is your end goal for the size of coil that you describe?

2. I wonder how much the resonant frequency changes on the original induction stove when it is fully loaded.  Have you done any tests with and without a load to see how much it changes?

3.  If you do make the 100mm diameter coil that you describe,  how much change in frequency do you expect when it is fully loaded with a work piece?

Pete Stanaitis
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Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
« Reply #19 on: December 08, 2017, 04:22:31 PM »

 


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December 09, 2017, 03:58:31 PM
post Re: What kind of oscilloscope to buy?
[Electronic circuits]
futurist
December 09, 2017, 03:35:22 PM
post Re: What kind of oscilloscope to buy?
[Electronic circuits]
petespaco
December 09, 2017, 05:08:54 AM
post FPS1000HD unboxing
[High speed filming]
Mads Barnkob
December 08, 2017, 11:15:54 PM
post Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
[Electronic circuits]
Mads Barnkob
December 08, 2017, 07:54:06 PM
post Re: What kind of oscilloscope to buy?
[Electronic circuits]
Mads Barnkob
December 08, 2017, 07:29:29 PM
post Re: What kind of oscilloscope to buy?
[Electronic circuits]
futurist
December 08, 2017, 05:57:07 PM
post What kind of oscilloscope to buy?
[Electronic circuits]
petespaco
December 08, 2017, 04:39:48 PM
post Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
[Electronic circuits]
petespaco
December 08, 2017, 04:22:31 PM
post Re: Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove (5 parts)
[Electronic circuits]
Mads Barnkob
December 07, 2017, 10:03:07 PM
post Re: Tardief's DRSSTC
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils]
Mads Barnkob
December 07, 2017, 07:27:45 PM
post Re: Audio modulation by BUCK power supply
[Solid state Tesla coils]
Acid Byte
December 07, 2017, 06:33:43 AM
post Re: Tardief's DRSSTC
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils]
Tardief
December 06, 2017, 03:27:42 PM
post Re: WTS [DK]: NWL W00238 Capacitor 815 KVAR 1200 VAC 680 Ampere @ 10 kHz
[Sell / Buy / Trade]
Max
December 06, 2017, 01:56:20 PM
post Re: WTS [DK]: NWL W00238 Capacitor 815 KVAR 1200 VAC 680 Ampere @ 10 kHz
[Sell / Buy / Trade]
Mads Barnkob
December 06, 2017, 12:30:21 PM
post Re: WTS [DK]: NWL W00238 Capacitor 815 KVAR 1200 VAC 680 Ampere @ 10 kHz
[Sell / Buy / Trade]
Max
December 06, 2017, 11:04:26 AM
post Re: Royer Refinements
[Electronic circuits]
flyrod
December 06, 2017, 03:28:36 AM