Author Topic: GDT (Gate Drive Transformer) tutorial  (Read 415 times)

Offline davekni

  • High Voltage Expert
  • ******
  • Posts: 1442
  • Karma: +70/-0
  • Physicist, engineer (electronic), and hobbiest
    • View Profile
GDT (Gate Drive Transformer) tutorial
« on: November 28, 2021, 11:40:56 PM »
Hopefully this isn't wasted redundant work.  I've seen many builds with good GDT construction, using both halves of each twisted pair.  However, all the GDT construction guides I've found use a single primary wire.  Below is construction of a half-bridge GDT using two twisted pairs from CAT5 cable.  This is easier to see in pictures.  Extension to full-bridge isn't difficult.  Use four pairs, with four paralleled windings for primary, one wire from each pair.  (BTW, CAT5 isn't necessary.  If starting with single wires, twist pairs together, and use those pairs exactly as you would with pairs extracted from CAT5 cable.)

Start with a suitable high-permeability ferrite core.  (Some options listed at the end.)  The core I'm using here works, although the shape is not typical.  Pay attention to winding technique, not so much to core shape.

Wind two (for half-bridge) twisted pairs around the core.  More discussion about the number of turns to follow.  I'm using 4 turns here.  Mark the starting end of all four wires for later identification.  Here I've "marked" starting ends by length (short), with the tail ends left longer.  Other (preferred) options are to add bits of tape to the starting ends or strip insulation from the starting ends only.





Untwist the pairs almost to the core:



Twist each wire (each winding) with itself all the way back to where the pair twisting starts.  Don't leave any significant loop area of untwisted wire:



Pair one winding of each pair together for the primary.  I've chosen the lighter-color wire of each pair for simplicity, white and light-blue.  Most important: connect the two starting ends (short ends or stripped ends or however you marked them) together, then the two tail ends together.  If pairing is swapped, driver can be damaged by the shorted load.  (Test at very-low duty cycle initially just in case of error.)  The remaining winding of each pair is for an IGBT.  Starting end of one IGBT winding is gate.  Starting end of other IGBT winding is emitter of other IGBT.



Since I hadn't used tape to identify starting ends at the beginning, I added tape now.  Then cut the tail ends to length and strip.  Connect the two primary tail ends together:



The reason for the twisting is to minimize leakage inductance.  Leakage inductance slows down gate waveforms and causes overshoot and undershoot and generally-sloppy gate drive.  Twisting forces the wires to remain close together with little loop area between wires for magnetic field to slip through.  Best to maintain this pairing all the way to the driver for primary and all the way to gate and emitter terminals of IGBTs (or FETs) for the secondaries.  Avoid excess loop area when adding gate series resistors.  Keep the emitter wire adjacent the resistor to minimize loop area.

Now for a bit about cores and turns.  I'll add a second post on measuring cores and finished GDTs, a bit more advanced topic.
Toroid shape is generally preferred, but E-cores work if ungapped (no air gap or spacer between the two halves).
Most important two parameters are:
     Core material (reasonably-high permeability and saturation flux density).
     Core cross-sectional area.  Picture the area of a core slice inside one turn of the GDT winding.
Iron and other compressed-powder cores never work well.  Most (but not all) ferrite materials are OK.
Low-frequency EMI suppression cores are reasonable.  That is what I used above.  Most larger EMI cores are low-frequency, so workable.  This includes common-mode chokes found in power supplies.  (Remove existing windings.)  Such EMI materials include:
3C11, 3E6, 3E12, 3E10, 3E15, 3E25, 3E26, 3E27, 3E65
More ideal ferrite materials are generally designed for switching power supply transformers etc.  These include:
PC40, PC200
N27, N30, N35, N41, N49, N51, N72, N87, N88, N92, N95, N96, N97
T35, T37, T37, T38, T46, T57, T65, T66
3C90 through 3C97

Concerning cross-sectional area, more is better, within constraints of fitting the GDT mechanically into the build.  The core I used above is 28mm long, 14mm ID, 28mm OD.  The ring is 7mm thick (0.5 * (OD - ID)).  So cross-sectional area is 7mm thick * 28mm long = 196mm^2.  If using a more-typical ring toroid, the formula includes a factor of PI/4:  Area = length * 0.5 * (OD - ID) * PI / 4.

In general, look for cross-sectional area to be at 50mm^2 or more.  A bit smaller is fine for high-frequency Tesla coils.  Larger for low-frequency coils.  10 turns is usually plenty.  Excess turns increases wire length and therefore leakage inductance.  The above example is 4 turns.

(All my GDTs have either 2 turns or 3 turns.  That works with large area cores and careful measurement to make sure its enough.  A few more turns is generally safer.  Too many turns causes subtle issues due to leakage inductance.  Too few turns is more catastrophic, possibly damaging the driver and/or IGBTs when the core saturates.)

Here's a great picture from Mads of a full H-Bridge GDT constructed this way:
https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1856.msg13969#msg13969

A couple other posts with images that aren't quite as obvious.  For this first, look at the upper GDT wound with CAT5 cable including jacket:
https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=588.msg3779#msg3779
And this 3-turn GDT from my bridge tutorial:
https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1324.msg9886#msg9886
« Last Edit: December 02, 2021, 04:56:06 AM by davekni »
David Knierim

High Voltage Forum

GDT (Gate Drive Transformer) tutorial
« on: November 28, 2021, 11:40:56 PM »

 


* Recent Topics and Posts

post Re: Self Starting Coil (Not)
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
alan sailer
Today at 03:55:07 PM
post Re: Mixing PID loops
[General Chat]
TMaxElectronics
Today at 12:00:50 PM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
Today at 09:05:40 AM
post Mixing PID loops
[General Chat]
Patrick
Today at 07:28:01 AM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
jpvvv123
Today at 04:13:06 AM
post Re: Self Starting Coil (Not)
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
Today at 03:34:15 AM
post Self Starting Coil (Not)
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
alan sailer
January 23, 2022, 10:45:46 PM
post Re: GDT Slow Rise/Fall times even with resistor shorted
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
davekni
January 23, 2022, 09:06:49 PM
post GDT Slow Rise/Fall times even with resistor shorted
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
SalinsLV
January 23, 2022, 07:18:56 PM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 23, 2022, 06:18:13 PM
post Re: 120VAC Mains Ramped Builds
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Magneticitist
January 22, 2022, 11:20:55 AM
post Re: 120VAC Mains Ramped Builds
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
ZakW
January 22, 2022, 07:07:09 AM
post Re: GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
johnf
January 22, 2022, 05:27:37 AM
post Re: Help on my "first" SSTC (LabCoatz SSTC 2.0)- Popping transistors
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 22, 2022, 04:27:38 AM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
jpvvv123
January 22, 2022, 12:53:04 AM
post Re: 120VAC Mains Ramped Builds
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Magneticitist
January 21, 2022, 07:36:07 PM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
Uspring
January 21, 2022, 07:27:23 PM
post Re: Etching PCBs with a SLA 3d printer
[Printed Circuit Board]
TMaxElectronics
January 21, 2022, 02:05:52 PM
post Re: 120VAC Mains Ramped Builds
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
ZakW
January 21, 2022, 09:08:18 AM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
Da_Stier
January 21, 2022, 08:42:54 AM
post 120VAC Mains Ramped Builds
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Magneticitist
January 21, 2022, 03:00:04 AM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
alan sailer
January 21, 2022, 02:16:57 AM
post Re: Help on my "first" SSTC (LabCoatz SSTC 2.0)- Popping transistors
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
TiagoBS
January 20, 2022, 06:56:35 PM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
Da_Stier
January 20, 2022, 05:19:26 PM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
alan sailer
January 20, 2022, 03:53:54 PM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
Uspring
January 20, 2022, 01:20:19 PM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
Da_Stier
January 20, 2022, 10:11:21 AM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
alan sailer
January 19, 2022, 08:22:49 PM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
Mads Barnkob
January 19, 2022, 06:49:36 PM
post Re: Etching PCBs with a SLA 3d printer
[Printed Circuit Board]
hardboiled99
January 19, 2022, 07:37:27 AM
post Primary Coil Winding Technique
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
alan sailer
January 18, 2022, 10:34:48 PM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
alan sailer
January 18, 2022, 08:46:53 PM
post Re: Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
Mads Barnkob
January 18, 2022, 08:08:53 PM
post Re: GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
ZakW
January 18, 2022, 07:15:22 PM
post Muon Decay
[Detection, Counting and Measurements]
alan sailer
January 18, 2022, 06:49:48 PM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 18, 2022, 08:47:53 AM
post Re: QO-100 / EShail 2 Uplink amplifier development adventures
[Radio Frequency]
Da_Stier
January 17, 2022, 09:13:32 PM
post Re: QO-100 / EShail 2 Uplink amplifier development adventures
[Radio Frequency]
Da_Stier
January 17, 2022, 09:05:56 PM
post Re: Help on my "first" SSTC (LabCoatz SSTC 2.0)- Popping transistors
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Mads Barnkob
January 17, 2022, 07:45:48 PM
post Re: General Questions
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
Mads Barnkob
January 17, 2022, 07:41:34 PM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
Mads Barnkob
January 17, 2022, 07:38:25 PM
post Re: SSTC with push-pull configuration
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Mads Barnkob
January 17, 2022, 07:31:03 PM
post Re: GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Mads Barnkob
January 17, 2022, 07:28:02 PM
post Re: Induction heater Driver for Flyback?
[Voltage Multipliers]
MRMILSTAR
January 16, 2022, 09:00:02 PM
post Induction heater Driver for Flyback?
[Voltage Multipliers]
abstruse1
January 16, 2022, 07:35:26 PM
post Re: SSTC with push-pull configuration
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Bambinz
January 16, 2022, 12:21:40 PM
post Re: SSTC with push-pull configuration
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 15, 2022, 07:10:03 PM
post Re: SSTC with push-pull configuration
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Bambinz
January 15, 2022, 06:31:33 PM
post Re: SSTC with push-pull configuration
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Magneticitist
January 14, 2022, 08:47:43 PM
post Re: SSTC with push-pull configuration
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 14, 2022, 08:39:07 PM
post Re: Unusual Youtube channel activity
[General Chat]
davekni
January 14, 2022, 08:14:17 PM
post Re: Unusual Youtube channel activity
[General Chat]
Mads Barnkob
January 14, 2022, 08:12:13 PM
post Unusual Youtube channel activity
[General Chat]
MRMILSTAR
January 14, 2022, 05:51:52 PM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 14, 2022, 08:51:57 AM
post Re: SSTC with push-pull configuration
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Bambinz
January 13, 2022, 08:20:02 PM
post Re: Help with SSTC feedback circuits with 4046 IC and Schmitt Triggers
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 13, 2022, 05:27:40 AM
post Re: General Questions
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
thedoc298
January 13, 2022, 03:10:32 AM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 12, 2022, 06:18:15 PM
post Re: Single mosfet bifiliar gdt
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
alan sailer
January 12, 2022, 05:45:26 PM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
MRMILSTAR
January 12, 2022, 03:29:04 PM
post Re: Help with SSTC feedback circuits with 4046 IC and Schmitt Triggers
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
AFreshLad
January 12, 2022, 01:30:38 PM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 12, 2022, 09:09:13 AM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
MRMILSTAR
January 11, 2022, 08:05:27 PM
post Re: Nokia Siemens 3G Flexi 2100MHz 50W Amplifier Teardown
[Radio Frequency]
Mads Barnkob
January 11, 2022, 07:42:12 PM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
Duane B
January 11, 2022, 07:33:15 PM
post Re: 8x MOT transformer, weird power draw
[Transformer (Iron Core)]
AstRii
January 11, 2022, 06:19:49 PM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 11, 2022, 05:19:46 PM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
MRMILSTAR
January 11, 2022, 04:31:28 PM
post Re: 8x MOT transformer, weird power draw
[Transformer (Iron Core)]
AstRii
January 11, 2022, 03:21:37 PM
post Re: GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 11, 2022, 06:50:49 AM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
Duane B
January 11, 2022, 06:34:20 AM
post Re: Help on my "first" SSTC (LabCoatz SSTC 2.0)- Popping transistors
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 11, 2022, 06:24:13 AM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
davekni
January 11, 2022, 06:15:08 AM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
MRMILSTAR
January 11, 2022, 05:25:31 AM
post Re: Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
Duane B
January 11, 2022, 12:07:22 AM
post Strange reading for grid feedback coil voltage
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
MRMILSTAR
January 10, 2022, 10:56:48 PM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
Duane B
January 10, 2022, 09:38:53 PM
post Re: Help on my "first" SSTC (LabCoatz SSTC 2.0)- Popping transistors
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
ZakW
January 10, 2022, 07:50:13 PM
post Re: GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
ZakW
January 10, 2022, 07:19:17 PM
post Re: Help on my "first" SSTC (LabCoatz SSTC 2.0)- Popping transistors
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
TiagoBS
January 10, 2022, 03:13:08 PM
post Re: GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 10, 2022, 04:21:46 AM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 10, 2022, 03:59:09 AM
post Re: 8x MOT transformer, weird power draw
[Transformer (Iron Core)]
davekni
January 10, 2022, 03:54:59 AM
post Re: GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
ZakW
January 09, 2022, 11:45:09 PM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
jpvvv123
January 09, 2022, 11:04:25 PM
post 8x MOT transformer, weird power draw
[Transformer (Iron Core)]
AstRii
January 09, 2022, 04:22:11 PM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
Duane B
January 09, 2022, 05:52:11 AM
post Re: GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 09, 2022, 05:10:50 AM
post Re: Performance issues regarding phase angle in SSTCs
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 09, 2022, 01:20:40 AM
post GDT Testing
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
ZakW
January 09, 2022, 12:38:28 AM
post Re: General Questions
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
flyingperson23
January 08, 2022, 06:36:28 PM
post Performance issues regarding phase angle in SSTCs
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
Max Seiringer
January 08, 2022, 03:21:31 PM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 08, 2022, 09:05:41 AM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
jpvvv123
January 07, 2022, 10:20:10 PM
post Re: Hi! 811 A tesa coil
[Vacuum Tube Tesla Coils (VTTC)]
304er
January 07, 2022, 05:56:28 PM
post Re: First SSTC based on profdc9 PCB Pack
[Solid State Tesla Coils (SSTC)]
davekni
January 07, 2022, 05:15:38 AM
post Re: DRSSTC tuning
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
davekni
January 07, 2022, 05:01:21 AM
post Re: How to prevent secondary to secondary to primary arcs?
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
davekni
January 07, 2022, 04:59:59 AM
post Tophat QCW 1
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
dbach
January 07, 2022, 02:27:35 AM
post How to prevent secondary to secondary to primary arcs?
[Dual Resonant Solid State Tesla coils (DRSSTC)]
dbach
January 07, 2022, 02:19:40 AM

Sitemap 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
SimplePortal 2.3.6 © 2008-2014, SimplePortal